About OptiMine

OptiMine Software is a leader in cloud-based cross-channel marketing analytics and optimization that helps marketers grow their businesses and achieve significant ROI lift from their ad spend.

Executive Team


Proven, experienced leadership.

Matt Voda

Matt Voda

Chief Executive Officer

Dr. Robert Cooley Ph. D.

Dr. Robert Cooley Ph. D.

Chief Technology Officer, Founder

Judd Eder

Judd Eder

Vice President Client Operations

Christine Dennis

Christine Dennis

Senior Vice President Client Growth

Jeremy Slick

Jeremy Slick

Jeremy Slick- Vice President Client Success

Matt Voda brings deep experience and a proven track record of cloud-based technology and analytics success to his role at OptiMine. Matt joined OptiMine from United Health Group (Nasdaq: UNH) where he led consumer marketing within the $40B Optum division, developing and deploying sophisticated analytics-driven approaches to yield significant gains in engagement and ROI. Matt also spent 11 years at Digital River (Nasdaq: DRIV) as VP of Product Management developing the world's first cloud-based e-commerce platform, a high scale enterprise offering handling over $30B in e-commerce transactions, across 80 countries. The Digital River business grew by over 2000% during his tenure and was the first Minnesota company to go from 0 to a $1B+ market cap in the last 30 years. Matt spent his early career at Damark International and Information Advantage- joining both pre-IPO, focusing on high-scale customer and marketing analytics. Voda holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Business, Marketing from the University of Minnesota's Carlson School of Management.
Robert Cooley has deep expertise and broad application experience with data mining and optimization technologies. He is known for his groundbreaking work in Web Mining and has over fifteen years of experience managing projects and analyzing data in a variety of fields, with a focus on e-commerce, CRM, and unstructured text. Prior to OptiMine Software, Cooley was the VP of Technical Operations for KXEN, a data mining software company, and before that he was the Director of Data Mining for Outride Inc., a Xerox PARC spin-off specializing in personalized search technologies that was sold to Google in 2001. In addition to a PhD in computer science from the University of Minnesota, he holds degrees in civil and nuclear engineering.
Judd is an analytics and marketing expert, passionate about turning data into meaningful results. As leader of the Client Success team at OptiMine, he leads our team in their collaboration with our customers to ensure OptiMine is translating analytic insights into meaningful marketing performance improvements. He has deep, practitioner experience in digital marketing guiding leading, global brands to demonstrable ROI and sales improvement. Prior to joining OptiMine, Judd launched and led an online marketplace startup and has extensive engineering experience in the sustainable energy market.
Christine has a strong track record of creating and implementing positive change for brands by leveraging her experience in the disciplines of account management, brand strategy, media planning and buying, digital and social strategy, and analytics. With 20 years of creative agency experience at Fallon, BD’M, and Martin Williams, Christine has worked with some of the world’s most recognized brands, leading teams on award-winning advertising campaigns for clients like Amazon.com, Travelers, Raymond James, Best Buy, Chrysler, United Airlines, and The Islands of The Bahamas. She began her advertising career at Best Buy and most recently led marketing, sales, and audience Development at the Ordway Center for the Performing Arts. Christine serves on the boards of Public Art St. Paul and Friends of Carleton Rugby.
Leveraging a Journalism degree and array of industry experience, Jeremy works to transform analytics into insights and action. With over 13 years of experience working for and with multiple Fortune 500 companies, he has deep marketing, media and measurement experience across a wide array of industries: CPG, Retail, QSR & Financial Services, Travel & Hospitality. And within those organizations, he has also held various roles within the marketing space allowing him to bring a unique perspective to OptiMine. His experiences range from Marketing Analytics, Media Strategy Planning, Process Development & Implementation to Product & Process Development to Change Management and Strategy Advisory. Prior to joining OptiMine, Jeremy was helping a global Fortune 500 leverage their suite of marketing solutions to inform their decisions and process as they moved towards a more agile mindset.

Board of Directors


In our corner.

OptiMine is proud to have the strong backing and leadership of some of the industry's finest.

Ann Winblad

Ann Winblad

Tom Donnelly

Tom Donnelly

Executive Chair

Judy Owen

Judy Owen

Ann Winblad is the co-founder and a Managing Director of Hummer Winblad Venture Partners. Hummer Winblad Venture Partners (www.hwvp.com) is a leading venture capital firm focused exclusively on software investing and manages over $1 billion in cumulative capital. Since Hummer Winblad Venture Partners’ inception in 1989 the firm has launched over 160 new software companies. Ann has over 30 years of experience in the software industry as a successful software entrepreneur, strategy advisor, technical author and venture capitalist. Her background and experience have been chronicled in many international business and trade publications. Ann has a B.A. in Mathematics and in Business Administration from St. Catherine University. She has an M.A. in Education with a focus in International Economics from the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota. Ann also has an honorary Doctorate of Law degree from the University of St. Thomas. Ann has served as a Director of numerous start-up and public companies including Hyperion, Mulesoft, The Knot, Net Perceptions and Liquid Audio. She currently serves as a director of Ace Metrix, OptiMine, and Sonatype. She is a member of the Board of Trustees of the University of St. Thomas and a Board member of the Richard Schulze Family Foundation. Ann is also a member of CNBC’s Platinum Group.
Tom Donnelly brings significant digital marketing, analytics and SaaS (Software as a Service) experience to his role at OptiMine. He previously was President and Chief Operating Officer at Digital River, Inc., a leading global provider of Commerce-as-a-Service solutions, with 2013 revenue of $390M. At Digital River, Donnelly led the global e-marketing, sales, client delivery, and infrastructure organizations for the company’s core enterprise e-commerce businesses. Prior to joining Digital River, Donnelly served as President and COO of Net Perceptions, Inc. He has more than 25 years of Internet and technology experience.
Judy Owen is a founder and General Partner with Calumet Venture Fund, investing in technology companies in the Midwest. Prior to founding Calumet Venture Fund, Judy has was a Silicon Valley entrepreneur for over 30 years. She started her career as a “chip” designer at Intel Corporation. Owen has held a variety of executive management roles in notable Silicon Valley leadership companies, including: Silicon Graphics, Chips and Technologies, Teknekron Communication Systems. She was also the CEO and co-founder of Wireless Access Inc. a mobile communication device company, which was acquired by Glenayre. After the acquisition, Owen started investing in early stage technology companies: Picazo Communication (acquired by Intel) and SigmaQuest (acquired by Camstar/Siemens). Ms. Owen has a BS in Electrical Engineering from University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Careers

OptiMine Software is a growing, profitable market leader that works with many of the world's largest brands. If you are excited about using your skills, experience and knowledge to help solve some of the most complex marketing challenges in the market today, OptiMine is the right place for you. Based in Minneapolis’ North Loop neighborhood, OptiMine offers compelling career opportunities and growth. This is your opportunity to be a critical contributor in a Silicon Valley VC-backed software company with big impact and big plans. For other career inquiries, send your resume to: contact@optimine.com.

Latest News


View recent news announcements from OptiMine and our media coverage from around the web.

Luxury makes presence known at controversial Olympic...

Jul 26, 2021

Luxury has made their presence known at the controversial Olympics. Why? Read this recent article in Luxury Daily f...

Life After IDFA

Jun 23, 2021

Apple’s introduction of the App Tracking Transparency framework has shaken up the ad tech industry, so how is...

ARF Measurement Challenges Showcase

Jun 21, 2021

In the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF)’s recent Measurement Challenges Showcase, leading brands and the...

The Myths of Multi-Touch Attribution

Jun 14, 2021

  With the inception of digital advertising and online conversion tracking, marketers have been mesmerized by...

OptiMine On-Demand Webinar: "Moving Forward in the C...

Jun 09, 2021

Because of recent privacy changes from Apple & Google, the future is cookie-less. So, the question is this:   H...

Travel Industry Boards Prepare for the Roaring ’20s

Jun 07, 2021

The travel industry is preparing for a year of travel “unlike any other,” according to a new survey from payments c...

Google holds the keys to web privacy in Africa and A...

May 03, 2021

The fate of Android users’ privacy rests on an impending decision from Google: whether or not to follow in Ap...

Apple takes on the internet: the Big Tech battle ove...

May 03, 2021

Apple’s IDFA changes have just gone live, in favor privacy rights for the consumer. Read OptiMine CEO Matt Vo...

Major Consumer Privacy Changes from Apple and Google...

Apr 29, 2021

  Major technology changes from Apple and Google are reshaping the marketing and measurement landscapes and ar...

OptiMine On-Demand Webinar: "Apple IDFA & Google FLo...

Apr 23, 2021

In a period of data deprecation and increased data privacy, it is now more important than ever for brands to make s...

David Beckham balances business, adventure as Masera...

Apr 13, 2021

Italian automaker Maserati is showcasing the spirit of a life filled with equal parts business and enjoyment with a...

Luxury brands tee off with golf’s best at Masters

Apr 09, 2021

As the Masters welcomes back a limited number of spectators to Augusta National Golf Club, an exclusive group of lu...

MyPillow CEO Mike Lindell is embroiled in political ...

Apr 05, 2021

OptiMine CEO, Matt Voda, has recently been featured in a Business Insider article. Click here to read it now: https...

Consumer Data Privacy: The Wave About to Hit Retail

Mar 31, 2021

The consumer data privacy wave is about to hit retail. Are you prepared? Read OptiMine CEO Matt Voda’s piece...

Best Practices For Marketing To Gen Z

Mar 23, 2021

What are the best practices for marketing to Gen Z? Read OptiMine CEO Matt Voda’s Q&A on this topic in Fo...

OptiMine Overview

Mar 12, 2021

See how OptiMine’s incredibly powerful platform can work to improve your marketing ROI.

OptiMine On-Demand Webinar: MTA is Dead

Mar 12, 2021

Google Chrome killed cookies. Apple’s ITP has killed tracking. CCPA is now live. MTA is Dead.   What’s...

OptiMine On-Demand Webinar: Closing the Digital Mark...

Mar 12, 2021

If you cannot regularly measure your digital campaigns’ impacts on your in-store sales, you are missing full credit...

OptiMine On-Demand Webinar: Marketing Measurement in...

Mar 12, 2021

Major forces are re-shaping marketing measurement today and disrupting traditional approaches to marketing attribut...

OptiMine Video: How it Works

Mar 12, 2021

Watch our quick video to understand how OptiMine’s platform works and how it can help your brand achieve high...

Google Says No More Cookies in 2022: How Should Hote...

Mar 11, 2021

Google says no more cookies in 2022: how should hotel marketers react? Read OptiMine CEO Matt Voda’s advice i...

Google Announces it Will Stop Selling Ads Based on I...

Mar 03, 2021

  “If digital advertising doesn’t evolve to address the growing concerns people have about their privacy and h...

The Data Privacy Storm Continues: Apple ATT & IDFA C...

Feb 22, 2021

  Apple’s ATT & IDFA changes have become a very high-profile public discussion, and these changes are going to...

The Logic Behind Big Brands Sitting On The Sidelines...

Feb 05, 2021

Why have many big brands decided to skip Super Bowl advertising this year? Read OptiMine CEO Matt Voda’s take...

Budweiser is Doing This For the First Time in Almost...

Jan 26, 2021

For the first time in 40 years, Budweiser is foregoing their national advertising spot during the Super Bowl broadc...

Re-Defining Unified Measurement in the Era of Consum...

Jan 25, 2021

  We are currently in a period of massive marketing data disruption. Several forces have collided to alter the...

Aflac Case Study

Jan 22, 2021

Click here to download our case study on how agile marketing measurement & optimization from OptiMine drove a 1...

Citi Case Study

Jan 22, 2021

Click here to download our case study on how a top 10 global bank found agile analytic success with OptiMine and so...

Bed Bath & Beyond Case Study

Jan 22, 2021

Click here to download our case study on how OptiMine’s agile measurement & optimization drove an increas...

Pandora Case Study

Jan 22, 2021

Click here to download our case study on how OptiMine helped drive app install and activation success at Pandora an...

Twitter Case Study

Jan 22, 2021

  Click here to download our case study on how OptiMine helped discover that paid & promoted Twitter campaigns...

United HealthCare Case Study

Jan 22, 2021

Click here to download our case study on how the world’s largest healthcare company realized a 50x solution R...

Will Burger King’s Massive Rebrand Pay Off?

Jan 14, 2021

The fast food giant, Burger King, has recently completed its first rebrand in over 20 years. The question is: will...

Can Small Grocers Survive the E-Commerce Game?

Jan 11, 2021

How can smaller grocery stores survive in an unprecedented time that is dominated by online shopping and e-commerce...

It's Easy to Forget, But Tracking Does Not Equal Mea...

Dec 18, 2020

There are still ways to effectively measure marketing performance without relying on ad tracking. How? Read OptiMin...

How Should the Travel Industry Handle Vaccine Talk?

Nov 12, 2020

With a COVID-19 vaccine starting to become a near reality, many industries, such as travel, are forced to consider...

Proposition 24 Has Just Been Approved in California

Nov 05, 2020

  Proposition 24 was just approved yesterday in California, a huge win for consumers and their data privacy. This n...

Facebook Earnings Soar in Q3 Amid Global Pandemic

Nov 02, 2020

  While the global pandemic has had a devastating impact on a large majority of businesses, Facebook, the social gi...

Hyper-Local Marketing May be the Key to Pandemic Era...

Oct 20, 2020

How can travel brands bounce back during the pandemic? OptiMine CEO, Matt Voda, suggests that hyper-local marketing...

The Great Cookie Con

Sep 28, 2020

  Collecting consumer data via cookies was designed to allow marketers to identify audiences and improve ad targeti...

Apple Delays Ad-Tracking Changes

Sep 10, 2020

  Apple has recently confirmed that they will be delaying their IDFA changes (as part of iOS 14 which allows users...

Scared of COVID-19 This Halloween? Hershey is Making...

Sep 08, 2020

How is COVID-19 going to impact halloween and candy sales? Read the full article from The New York Times to find ou...

Only 9% of Companies Have a Clearly Defined Budget f...

Sep 04, 2020

  Only 9% of brands have a clearly defined budget for 2021. Seven months into the coronavirus pandemic, and brands...

Apple’s iOS 14 Will Bring Big Changes to Facebook

Aug 27, 2020

  Facebook announced today that Apple’s IDFA changes in iOS 14 will now prevent iPhone ID tracking—thereby limiting...

Breaking GDPR News: Oracle & Salesforce Hit with Lar...

Aug 18, 2020

  Two of the major tech leaders, Oracle and Salesforce, have just been accused of violating the GDPR because of the...

Firefox Joins other Major Web Browsers in the Consum...

Aug 13, 2020

It is no question that the year of 2020 has been full of consumer privacy changes, from Google Chrome beginning to...

With Retail Re-Opening, Media Planning Matters More ...

Aug 12, 2020

Welcome to OptiMine’s fourth and final installment of our ‘Retail Re-Opening’ series, where we will finish up our d...

With Retail Re-Opening, Media Planning Matters More ...

Aug 10, 2020

For the third installment of OptiMine’s ‘Retail Re-Opening’ series, we dive deeper into the best ways to allocate m...

With Retail Re-Opening, Media Planning Matters More ...

Aug 05, 2020

For the second installment of OptiMine’s ‘Retail Re-Opening’ series, we will continue to discuss the best way to al...

The Impact of CCPA Enforcement

Aug 04, 2020

Now, 7 months after the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) became law on January 1, 2020, policy makers in Cali...

With Retail Re-Opening, Media Planning Matters More ...

Aug 03, 2020

As states allow retail businesses to re-open their physical stores, retailers are faced with a new dilemma: what is...

Marketing Attribution Mistake #5: Failing to Adjust ...

Jul 27, 2020

If you’ve continued to follow along with OptiMine’s blog series about the top marketing attribution mistakes, you’l...

Marketing Attribution Mistake #4: Neglecting Non-Mar...

Jul 22, 2020

If you’ve been following along with OptiMine’s blog series about the top marketing attribution mistakes, you’ll kno...

Marketing Attribution Mistake #3: Speaking in Silos

Jul 20, 2020

If you’ve continued to follow along with OptiMine’s blog series about the top marketing attribution mistakes, you’l...

Brands Should Brace Themselves for More States to Ad...

Jul 15, 2020

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) is officially being enforced, and consumer data privacy regulations are...

Marketing Attribution Mistake #2: Rejecting Regulato...

Jul 15, 2020

This is OptiMine’s second installment in our blog series about the top marketing attribution mistakes (see the firs...

How Intelligent is your Ad Spending?

Jul 08, 2020

Especially in today’s day and age, it is crucial to understand the most efficient ways to distribute your mar...

CCPA Enforcement Begins Today

Jul 01, 2020

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which provides consumers with access and control over their personal in...

Marketing Attribution Mistake #1: Concentrating on C...

Jul 01, 2020

Marketing Attribution has become a hot topic of late. Technology industry changes, new regulations and the death of...

Media Mix Modeling (MMM): The Marketing Measurement ...

Jun 23, 2020

If you’ve been watching the ad tracking and cookie demise news over the last two years, you’ll know it is becoming...

Marketing Post-COVID Requires a Good Strategy

Jun 11, 2020

How can travel brands bounce back from the effects of the pandemic? First things first, they’re going to need...

What Restaurants Need to Know About Agile Marketing

Jun 11, 2020

“Agile marketing” is a concept that restaurants should familiarize themselves with. Read OptiMine CEO M...

Besides His Career, The Last Dance Also Highlighted ...

May 21, 2020

Have you been watching “The Last Dance” documentary about Michael Jordan? Read OptiMine CEO Matt Voda&#...

COVID-19 Isn't Delaying the Enforcement of the CCPA

May 19, 2020

Enforcement of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)—a law that gives California consumers the right to know w...

MTA is Dead: Why Marketers Should Adopt Agile Market...

May 18, 2020

With new privacy regulations hitting marketers and the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, and Safari all blocking...

Three Ways Marketers Can Apply Agile Principles to A...

May 12, 2020

Companies that can strategically make quick adjustments will come out on the other side of this pandemic stronger t...

Drop Multi-Touch Attribution and Adopt an Agile Mark...

May 05, 2020

Looking for a way to improve your marketing? Adopt an agile marketing approach (with advantages in go-to-market spe...

Online Retailers Shift Marketing Dollars During Coro...

Apr 29, 2020

Retailers are re-strategizing how they are spending—or cutting back—their marketing dollars during the coronavirus...

Easy Ways to Reduce Marketing Spend Without Severely...

Apr 27, 2020

Brands are grappling with marketing investment decisions during this time of such uncharted waters. OptiMine has be...

Travel Marketing in a Pandemic

Apr 16, 2020

At a time of so much uncertainty, companies around the world are scrambling to figure out how to adjust– espe...

Building a Better Way to Measure Marketing Effective...

Apr 07, 2020

Are you interested in learning what OptiMine’s CEO, Matt Voda, has to say in regards to a better way to measu...

Apple is Fully Blocking Safari's Third-Party Cookies

Mar 26, 2020

Just a few days ago, Apple announced that it will fully block all third-party cookies in Safari by default. Additio...

Why the 2020 Holiday Season Will Look Drastically Di...

Mar 16, 2020

With the CCPA live and other states with similar regulations in the works, the 2020 holiday season is bound to look...

Marketing Attribution: Is Your Hotel Taking Full Adv...

Mar 16, 2020

Is your hotel taking full advantage of marketing attribution? Read OptiMine CEO Matt Voda’s insights into how...

First Party Data Won't Solve Your Marketing Attribut...

Feb 24, 2020

  Right now, there is a major move in the marketing industry towards 1st party relationships with consumers— in fac...

CCPA Already Showing Risk for Marketers

Feb 10, 2020

  The California Consumer Privacy Act went live on January 1st, 2020, and is already making its mark on the marketi...

Data Privacy Day

Jan 28, 2020

Happy Data Privacy Day! Did you know that January 28th is observed annually as “Data Privacy Day”? Well, now you do...

Chrome Dropping Third-Party Cookies by 2022: What Yo...

Jan 15, 2020

Have you heard? Google Chrome has just recently announced that third-party cookies will cease to exist in their onl...

CCPA goes live in days- are you ready? Read OptiMine...

Dec 30, 2019

With CCPA On The Horizon, Marketers Can Expect A Very Different Holiday Season In 2020...

CCPA: Questions of Privacy, Compliance, and Enforcem...

Dec 11, 2019

CCPA Goes Live in a Few Weeks- Read OptiMine’s Article on MarketingProfs About the Implications for Marketing...

Five Key Takeaways from CCPA for Performance Markete...

Dec 09, 2019

Yes, we know, it’s hardly even full-fledged holiday season, but be prepared: 2020 is only a few short weeks away. A...

OptiMine Webinar

Nov 04, 2019

Join OptiMine for our live webinar on Thursday November 14th at 1:00 PM EST/ 10:00 AM PST- Marketing Measurement in...

Multi-touch Attribution is DEAD.

Sep 30, 2019

MTA is Dead.  Read OptiMine’s new eBook to learn what’s next for marketing measurement: Download eBook...

Join us for a Live Webinar: Closing the Digital Mark...

Jul 29, 2019

Join OptiMine for a live webinar where we’ll dive deep on digital campaigns’ impacts on in-store sales....

Multi-Touch Attribution is Dead

May 14, 2019

Multi-Touch Attribution is dead. For those of you who haven’t even deployed your first multi-touch attribution mode...

From Clicks to Bricks- Getting Digital Campaigns' In...

Apr 15, 2019

From Clicks to Bricks In OptiMine’s last blog post, we explored the Top 5 reasons why retailers need to measure dig...

From Clicks to Bricks: The Top 5 Reasons to Measure ...

Apr 11, 2019

From Clicks to Bricks Despite the fact that the retail landscape is undergoing a massive wave of disruption, there...

From Clicks to Bricks: Measuring Digital Campaigns' ...

Feb 14, 2019

This informative whitepaper covers the major approaches to measuring digital marketing impacts on in-store retail s...

The Rise of the Financial Marketer

Jan 21, 2019

We’re in the middle of budgeting season, with teams scrambling to solidify their annual marketing plans and budgets...

Amazon Advertising- the Major Missing Link

Aug 08, 2018

Amazon has been in the news a lot lately because of the surging success of its advertising program. Brands are find...

Is Marketing Attribution Dead?

May 17, 2018

About a decade ago, a new breed of technology vendors crashed the MarTech scene promising the ability to track and...

OptiMine Intent: Delivering Optimized Marketing Budg...

Apr 24, 2018

If you’ve spent much time in business, you’ve likely been through an excruciatingly painful budgeting process. Fina...

Have We All Contributed to the Facebook Data Privacy...

Apr 06, 2018

In light of the recent data privacy issues at Facebook, marketers need to examine their role, response and contribu...

Restoration Hardware: Exposing the Fatal Flaws in To...

Mar 20, 2018

Recently, the CEO of Restoration Hardware Gary Friedman told the crowd at the Goldman Sachs Global Retailing Confer...

Marketing Attribution- Where Confusion Reigns

Mar 20, 2018

Ask any marketer how they define “marketing attribution” and you’re likely to get as many different definitions as...

Forrester Research & OptiMine: An Insider's Guide to...

Mar 20, 2018

In this insightful webinar featuring Forrester Research analyst Tina Moffet and OptiMine CEO, Matt Voda, you’...

Forbes - Agile Marketing Should be Focus for CMOs

Feb 14, 2018

In an age of massive marketing change- an explosion of new devices and channels, and dramatic shifts in customer be...

Determining the Incremental Value of Marketing

Feb 06, 2018

In this whitepaper, OptiMine explores the trade-offs of different measurement approaches, including multi-touch att...

Forrester Research & OptiMine: Tackle Channel Prolif...

Jan 05, 2018

Channel and device proliferation have created always-on, always-addressable consumers who have a myriad of ways to...

OptiMine Named a Forrester Breakout Vendor

Aug 07, 2017

Forrester Research today named OptiMine a “Breakout Vendor” in the Marketing Measurement and Optimizati...

Agile Attribution: B2B Conversion Lift of 14% Using ...

Aug 01, 2017

OptiMine’s work with MediaVest and Aflac revealed opportunities in digital media to drive significant convers...

Ad Exchanger Article: Marketing-Mix Modeling: Leapin...

Jul 25, 2017

“Data-Driven Thinking” is written by members of the media community and contains fresh ideas on the dig...

What Does "Attribution" Mean?

May 25, 2017

“Data-Driven Thinking” is written by members of the media community and contains fresh ideas on the dig...

Agile Attribution Lifts Online Sales by 23%

Nov 11, 2016

Retailer Coolibar drove sales increases of 23% using OptiMine’s agile attribution approach to measure and opt...